The World Economic Forum is mostly known for its highly anticipated annual meeting in Davos, Switzerland — a scene of global intrigue and a convergence point for the planet’s most influential politicians, investors, activists, CEOs, and economists. But the work of this prestigious NGO extends far and beyond the confines of a singular event. Established in 1971 as a not-for-profit foundation, the World Economic Forum has made it its year-round mission to “improve the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic, and other leaders of society to shape global, regional, and industry agendas”.
One of the foundation’s key platforms is “Shaping the Future of Technology Governance: Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning”. This program brings together key stakeholders from the public and private sectors to co-design and test policy frameworks that accelerate the benefits and mitigate the risks of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML).
As part of the Chatbots RESET project, one of many under the broad umbrella of initiatives launched by this platform, I was fortunate enough to be invited to participate in the Chatbots for Healthcare virtual workshop, a gathering of some of the brightest minds in conversational healthcare, tasked with coming up with a set of answers and ideas to the field’s most pressing issues. On a personal level, this experience was both incredibly enlightening and, in many ways, humbling. But as an extension of Hyro, a conversational AI platform for healthcare, it was as if I came across a treasure trove of actionable insights to be explored and tested for the benefit of our clients.
In the spirit of the free exchange of ideas so brilliantly exemplified by the World Economic Forum, here are some of the key takeaways from the workshop, freshly conceived by conversational AI experts from Google, Microsoft, Babylon Health, and more.
Conversational AI in healthcare (conversational health) offers a wide array of use cases from digital patient access to care management and delivery. Following several rounds of discussion, the workshop’s participants reached a consensus on the five primary applications of conversational health:
Won’t this replace jobs? Not quite. Conversational AI, at its best, has the potential to enhance the abilities of its users. One exciting idea raised during the workshop was using conversational AI to fill in any knowledge gaps healthcare call center operators may have. When considering the fact that there are hundreds of thousands of medical terms, it’s easy to understand why an untrained human operator may find the help of artificial intelligence useful. A virtual assistant will handle the initial part of the conversation, ascertaining the caller’s name, date of birth, condition, insurance, etc. The information collected is displayed in real-time on a designated dashboard for the operator to prepare for the hand-off and jump in at any point if deemed necessary. What this combination of human and machine adds up to on a larger scale, is the creation of viable employment opportunities for untrained workers in the healthcare sector.
As was mentioned in our recently published COVID-19 Insights Report, In a July 2019 survey conducted by BMC, 72.1% of respondents stated that their general practitioner (GP) was their information source of choice for health-related questions. Healthcare organizations have a critical, at times, life-saving responsibility to provide their patients with certified, vetted information. This is further highlighted by a tsunami-like proliferation of fake news and misinformation in the wake of COVID-19. In the context of conversational AI, accountability and transparency are foundational to the ethical use and dissemination of information. As Natural Language and Machine Learning models become more complex and advanced, it is of paramount importance that all medical-related information ingested goes through a meticulous screening and examination process.
While most of the Chatbots RESET project focused on the pivotal benefits of the technology, part of the initiative was spent highlighting some existing and potential hurdles involved with the widespread adoption of conversational AI in healthcare. Several issues, such as miscommunication between chatbots and customers, AI hesitancy or negative customer perception of chatbots, and omission or reduction of customer preferences in interacting with AI versus human beings, took the spotlight. But those weren’t even the most daunting aspects. Concern hit the stage regarding inaccurate/poor guidance, improper diagnosis or screening, and the possible neglect of intervention when necessary.
In order to develop difference-making AI for healthcare, there needs to be emphasis on the trifecta of pillars for widespread governance, listed by the World Economic Forum as “transparency, reliability, and data security.“
According to the World Economic Forum, some of the more classic AI governance gaps include:
While that list seems lengthy, note that a majority of these gaps are actually already being filled by various players in the conversational AI space, including Hyro. Returning to the previously mentioned pillars of governance, there should be a focus on “transparency, reliability, and data security.“
It’s vital to set expectations for patients, and to divulge the capabilities of the system, at the onset of engagement. For instance, our virtual assistants don’t open with generic text, rather, they announce their explicit purpose, such as the example on the left regarding finding physicians and helping with COVID-19. Setting expectations early results in less friction between patient and provider, should the patient require other use cases or assistance that isn’t relevant to the designated purpose of the chatbot.
Reliability comes from robust understanding; natural language, a core piece of our technologies, allows for open dialogue for all dialects, limiting bias and creating a wide range of actionable inputs. Confident understanding allows for accurate triggers to exist, so that certain patient intents/ phrases will automatically lead to handoff to a human, or at minimum, acknowledgement to the patient that their desired action is out of scope.
With regards to data — heightened encryption, PHI reduction, and the democratization of data between healthcare organizations, EHRs and the patients they serve, are just some of the standards being set.
Beyond the product itself, let’s zoom in on how conversational AI might mistakenly create a “digital divide”, which can exist due to factors including age and socioeconomic status. Patients who are less tech-savvy, such as the elderly, or those who do not have the financial means to access the mediums that digital care is delivered through, could become neglected. To ensure that advanced digital care such as conversational AI is reaching the maximum number of patients possible, the digital literacy required to use the virtual assistants should be as simplified as can be. To guarantee that the gap is bridged between those who have better access to technology and these types of services, an emphasis needs to be placed on omni-channel solutions.
Conversational interfaces should meet patients on whichever channels they have access to, whether that’s SMS, mobile apps, websites or call centers, so that nobody is left out of the digital revolution.
While there is still progress to be made, the World Economic Forum prioritizing conversational AI as a key point of discussion on the global agenda echoes this technology’s meteoric rise. At Hyro, we recognize the weight of this moment in time, embracing the challenges and possibilities that the present period is ushering in. We are determined to continue to be active members of the conversational AI community, and to contribute as much as we can to its advancement during the COVID-19 era and beyond. There is immense pride in serving thousands of patients daily, and we are inspired by our partners in healthcare to deliver new needle-moving features every day. As always, we remain committed to sharing the lessons we learn along the way.
Follow our journey on LinkedIn or Twitter or shoot me an email at email@example.com. Download our latest report: Conversational AI for COVID-19: Insights from Hyro’s Virtual Assistants Across US Healthcare Systems — based on the analysis of thousands of anonymized patient conversations across active COVID-19 Virtual Assistants, providing impartial and pointed insights into patient engagement with health providers during the COVID-19 crisis.
The Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning platform at the World Economic Forum is working on the governance of chatbots in healthcare. For more information on this project or to engage with this project, contact Arunima Sarkar, Project Lead, at firstname.lastname@example.org, or Venkataraman Sundareswaran, Project Fellow, at email@example.com
Head of Marketing at Hyro